Criminological Insights: A Comprehensive Spatial Analysis of Crime Hot Spots of Property Offenses in Malaysia's Urban Centers


  • Azizul Ahmad Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities (CSIDH), Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Tarmiji Masron Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities (CSIDH), Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Syahrul Nizam Junaini Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Mohamad Hardyman Barawi Faculty of Cognitive Science and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Mohd Sofian Redzuan Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities (CSIDH), Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Yoshinari Kimura Graduate School of Literature and Human Sciences, Osaka Metropolitan University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-Ku, Osaka 5588585
  • Norita Jubit Borneo Institute for Indigenous Studies (BorIIS), Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS),Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 88400
  • Luqman Haqim Bismelah Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities (CSIDH), Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300
  • Asykal Syakinah Mohd Ali Centre for Spatially Integrated Digital Humanities (CSIDH), Faculty of Social Sciences & Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak 94300



crime hotspot mapping, property crime trends, spatial analysis, Geographic Information Systems


This study examines property crime trends in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, and Putrajaya from 2015 to 2020, utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and comprehensive crime data from the Royal Malaysia Police. It focuses on the relationship between property crime rates and the delineation of police station jurisdictions across Selangor State, Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory (KLFT), and Putrajaya Federal Territory (PFT). The objective is to understand the dynamics of property crime, its evolution, and the influence of the National Transformation Program on crime prevention strategies. By assessing the spatial distribution of property crimes, this research aims to identify underlying trends and the efficacy of hot spot policing. The analysis is underpinned by an extensive review of secondary data from the Intelligence/Operations/Records Division of the Royal Malaysia Police Headquarters, enabling a deep dive into the spatial characteristics of property crime within these regions. The findings contribute to the broader understanding of crime prevention in Malaysia, underscoring the importance of GIS technology and the need for strategic interventions tailored to specific crime patterns. This study provides critical insights for policymakers and law enforcement to formulate evidence-based strategies, enhance public safety, and inform future crime prevention efforts.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul, K N. F. A. (2015). Analisis Jenayah Pecah Rumah di Daerah Alor Setar, Kedah Menggunakan Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) [Disertasi ini diserahkan untuk memenuhi sebahagian keperluan Ijazah Sarjana Sains (Sains Maklumat Geografi)]. Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ahmad, A. (2015). Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi dalam Pengurusan Data Tapak Arkeologi. In T. Masron & M. Saidin (Eds.), Teknologi Maklumat Ruangan Dalam Arkeologi. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ahmad, A., and Masron, T. (2013). Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) dalam Menganggar Keluasan Petempatan Awal di Tapak Arkeologi Lembah Lenggong, Hulu Perak, Perak, Malaysia. Jurnal Perspek-tif: Jurnal Sains Sosial Dan Kemanusiaan, 5(1), 19–38.

Ahmad, A., Masron, T., Jubit, N., Redzuan, M. S., Soda, R., Bismelah, L. H., & Mohd, A. A. S. (2024). Anal-ysis of the Movement Distribution Pattern of Violence Crime in Malaysia’s Capital Region-Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, and Putrajaya. International Journal of Geoinformatics, 20(2), 11–26. doi: 10.52939/ijg.v20i2.3061

Ahmad, A., Masron, T., Osman, M. A., Mohammed, B., & Marzuki, A. (2011). Initial Studies on Web Based Tourism Decision Support System (WBTDSS) Case Study: Langkawi Island, Kedah. In Azizi Bahuddin (Ed.), Proceedings of 2nd Regional Conference on Tourism Research: Venturing into New Tourism Re-search (pp. 344–359). Retrived From sro n/ed8ee1cdad4caf130964be266ebc6453a50529f

Ahmad, A., Masron, T., Ringkai, E., Barawi, M. H., Salleh, M. S., Jubit, N., & Redzuan, M. S. (2024). Analisis Ruangan Hot Spot Jenayah Pecah Rumah di Negeri Selangor, Kuala Lumpur dan Putrajaya pada tahun 2015-2020. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 20(1), 49–67. doi: 10.17576/geo-2024-2001-04

Ahmad, A., Masron, T., & Saidin, M. (2015). Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi Untuk Menganggar Kelua-san Petempatan Awal Tapak Arkeologi Lembah Lenggong, Hulu Perak, Perak. In T. Masron & M. Saidin (Eds.), Teknologi Maklumat Ruangan Dalam Arkeologi. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Ahmad, A., Mohd, A. N., & Abdul Majid A. (2013). Regional Carrying Capacity (RCC) Issues Langkawi Is-lands, Kedah. In B. Mohamed & A. Bahauddin (Eds.), Proceedings of International Conference on Tourism Development: Building the Future of Tourism, Penang, Malaysia, 4 & 5 February 2013 (p. 487). Retrived From _Is lands_Kedah

Ahmad, A., Said, M. Z., Masron, T., Ariffin, N. A., Zakaria, Y. S., Ardiansyah, A., Jamru, L. R., Talib, N. K., Idris, N. R. A., Rahma, A. N., Bismelah, L. H., Mohd, A. A. S., Wis, B. A., & Musa N. (2024). Faktor Kesukaran dalam Proses Memodelkan Sebuah Tapak Arkeologi Menerusi Pendekatan Geospatial. E-Bangi: Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 21(1), 492–501. doi: 10.17576/ebangi.2024.2101.42

Anselin, L. (1988). Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Part of the book series: Studies in Operational Regional Science (SORS). Springer Dordrecht, 4(1), 1-16. doi: 10.1007/978-94-015-7799-1

Anselin L., Cohen J., Cook D., Gorr W., & Tita, G. (2000). Spatial Analyses of Crime. In Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, Criminal Justice. National Institute of Justice, 4(5), 213-262.

Ariffin, N. A. (2022). Pemodelan Ruang Masa Penyakit Tuberkulosis di Pulau Pinang. Retrived From https://erepo.usm. my/handle /123456789/18554.

Ariffin, N. A., Wan Ibrahim W. M. M., Rainis R., Samat N., Mohd Nasir M. I., Abdul Rashid S. M. R., Ahmad A., & Zakaria Y. S. (2024). Identification of Trends, Direction of Distribution and Spatial Pattern of Tuberculosis Disease (2015-2017) in Penang. Geografia-Malaysian. Journal of Society and Space, 20(1), 68–84. doi: 10.17576/geo-2024-2001-05.

Ayob, N. M., Ahmad, A., & Mohamed, B. (2013). Spatial Distributions of Tourist in Langkawi Island. Pro-ceedings of International Conference on Tourism Development, 301–309. Retrived From c56c11ed

Ayob, N. M., Masron, T., & Ahmad, A. (2014). Taburan Ciri-Ciri Sosio-Demografi Pelancong Domestik mengikut lokasi di Pulau Langkawi. International Journal of Environment, Society and Space, 2(2), 35–49.

Basiron, N. F. Z., Ahmad A., & Masron T. (2014). Spatial Analysis of International Tourist Movement to Langkawi for 2010 and 2011. International Conference on Tourism Research, SHS Web of Confer-ences, 12(01066). doi: 10.1051/shsconf/20141201066.

Braga, A. A. (2003). Protocol-Systematic Review of the Effects of Hot Spots Policing on Crime. Campbell Sys-tematic Reviews, 1(1), 1–13. doi: 10.1002/CL2.20

Braga, A. A., Papachristos A. V., & Hureau D. M. (2014). The Effects of Hot Spots Policing on Crime: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Justice Quarterly, 31(4), 633–663. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2012.673632

Braga, A. A., Turchan B., Papachristos, A. V., & Hureau, D. M. (2019). Hot Spots Policing of Small Geo-graphic Areas Effects on Crime. In Campbell Systematic Reviews Wiley Blackwell, 15(1), 1-88. doi: 10.1002/cl2.1046

Ceccato, V., & Wilhelmsson, M. (2020). Do Crime Hot Spots Affect Housing Prices?. Nordic Journal of Crim-inology, 21(1), 84–102. doi: 10.1080/2578983X.2019.1662595

Chainey, S., & Ratcliffe, J. (2005). GIS and Crime Mapping (Mastering GIS Technologies, Applications and Management Series). Retrived From dp/B00C SPK2MG

Chainey, S., & Ratcliffe, J. (2013). GIS and Crime Mapping (1st Edition). Retrived From

Duru H., & Akbas H. (2021). Measuring Hot Spots Policing in Non-Research Settings. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 65(100468). doi: 10.1016/j.ijlcj.2021.100468.

ESRI. (2022). How Hot Spot Analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) Works. Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Retrived From,the%20context%20of%20neighboring% 2 0features.

ESRI. (2022). Spatial Autocorrelation (Global Moran’s I) (Spatial Statistics). Retrived From /pro-app/latest/tool-reference/spatial-statistics/spatial-autocorrelation.htm

FBI UCR. (2019). Crime in the United State US Department of Justice. Retrived From

Felson, M., Xu, Y., & Jiang, S. (2022). Property Crime Specialization in Detroit, Michigan. Journal of Criminal Justice, 82(101953). doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2022.101953

Fenimore, D. M. (2019). Mapping Harmspots: An Exploration of The Spatial Distribution of Crime Harm. Ap-plied Geography, 109(102034). doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2019.06.002

Gorr, W. L., Kurland, K. S., & Dodson, Z. M. (2018). GIS Tutorial for Crime Analysis ESRI Press. Retrived From

Hakim, H. M., Lalung, J., Khan, H. O., Hamzah, H. H., Othman, M. F., Rasudin, N. S., Pati, S., Bryan, R. N., Mat-Ghani, S. N. A., Geoffrey, K. C., & Hisham, A. E. (2022). Property Crime Incidence and Patterns in Malaysia from 2007 to 2017. Planning Malaysia. Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 20(1), 25–35. doi: 10.21837/pm.v20i20.1076.

Han, Y., Hu, Y., Zhu, H., & Wang F. (2023). A Cyclically Adjusted Spatio-Temporal Kernel Density Estima-tion Method for Predictive Crime Hotspot Analysis. Annals of GIS, 29(2), 177–191. doi: 10.1080/19475683.2023.2166584

Hashim, H., Wan, M. W. M. N., Sadek, E. M., & Dimyati, K. M. (2019). Modeling Urban Crime Patterns using Spatial Space Time and Regression Analysis. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Re-mote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives, 42(16), 247–254. doi: 10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W16-247-2019.

Janssonm, K. (2008). British Crime Survey-Measuring Crime for 25 years. Retrived From chrome-exten-si-on://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/ e2ca5117d5c15d1ff7c32518c5c3ae8e5d66

Jubit, N., Masron, T., & Marzuki, A. (2020). Analyzing The Spatial Temporal of Property Crime Hot Spots. A Case Study of Kuching, Sarawak. Planning Malaysia: Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 18(4), 1–11. doi: 10.21837/pm.v18i14.813

Jubit, N., Masron, T., Puyok, A., & Ahmad A. (2023). Geographic Distribution of Voter Turnout, Ethnic Turnout and Vote Choices in Johor State Election. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 19(4), 64–76. doi: 10.17576/geo-2023-1904-05

Jubit, N., Masron, T., & Redzuan M. S. (2023). High Risk Areas of Snatch Theft in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, and Selangor, Malaysia. Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 19(4), 15–29. doi: 10.17576/geo-2023-1904-02.

Jubit, N., Redzuan, M. S., Ahmad, A., Salleh, M. S., & Masron, T. (2022). Tren Jenayah Harta Benda di Malaysia: Kajian di Selangor dan Kuala Lumpur. Geografi, 10(2), 35–53. doi: 10.37134/geografi.vol10.2.3.2022.

Kivivuori, J., & Salmi, V. (2006). Trends of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency in Finland, 1995-2008. Retrived From

Koper, C. S., Wu, X., & Lum, C. (2021). Calibrating Police Activity Across Hot Spot and Non-Hot Spot Areas. Police Quarterly, 24(3), 382–406. doi: 10.1177/1098611121995809.

Marzuki, A., Bagheri, M., Ahmad, A., Masron, T., & Akhir M. F. (2023). Establishing a GIS-SMCDA Model of Sustainable Eco-Tourism Development in Pahang, Malaysia. Journal of International Geoscience, 46(3), 375–387. doi: 10.18814/epiiugs/2022/022037.

Mohamad, R. M. N., Sahani, M., Othman, H., Hod, R., Idrus, S., Mohd, A. Z., Choy, E. A., & Rosli M. H. (2013). Aplikasi Sistem Maklumat Geografi untuk Pemetaan Reruang-Masa: Suatu Kajian Kes Denggi di Daerah Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 42(8), 1073–1080.

Mokhtar, E. S., Ghazali, N., Sadek, M. E. S. S., Mohd, S. N. Z., Shaharudin, M. R., Ramli, L. E., & Arsad, A. R. (2023). Pemetaan Hotspot Kes Jenayah Kawasan Lembah Klang Menggunakan Kaedah Geographical Information System (GIS). Journal of Public Security and Safety, 15(1), 1-15.

Moran, P. A. P. (1950). A Test for the Serial Independence of Residuals. Biometrika, 37(1–2), 178–181. doi: 10.2307/2332 162.

Muhamad, L. A. N., Abdul, A. N., Yusoff, H. N., & Wan, A. R. W. J. (2013). Impacts of Urban Land Use on Crime Patterns Through GIS Application. Planning Malaysia: Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 11(2), 1–22. doi: 10.21837/pm.v11i2.113

Nepomuceno, T. C. C., & Costa, A. P. C. S. (2019). Spatial Visualization on Patterns of Disaggregate Rob-beries. Operational Research, 19(4), 857–886. doi: 10.1007/s12351-019-00479-z.

Nix, J., Huff, J., Wolfe, S. E., Pyrooz, D. C., & Mourtgos, S. M. (2024). When Police Pull Back: Neighbor-hood-Level Effects of De-Policing on Violent and Property Crime, A Research Note. Criminology, 1–16. doi: 10.1111/1745-9125.12363

Nordin, Z., & Saad, M. S. M. (2010). Ke Arah Bandar Selamat: Pencegahan Jenayah Bandar Melalui Per-kongsian Pemetaan GIS Hotspot Jenayah. Buletin Geospatial Sektor Awam Edisi 2/2010, Pusat Infra-struktur Data Geospatial Negara [MaCGDI]. Kementerian Sumber Asli Dan Alam Sekitar [NRE], 12–22. Retrived From

PEMANDU. (2010). Annual Report-Government Transformation Programme (GTP)-The Road. Map Executive Summary. Retrived From

Santos, R. B., & Santos, R. G. (2021). Proactive Police Response in Property Crime Micro-Time Hot Spots: Results from a Partially-Blocked Blind Random Controlled Trial. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 37(1), 247–265. doi: 10.1007/s10940-020-09456-8

Shamsudin, K. (2008). Safe City Programme: Are We on The Right Path to Reduce Crime? Planning Malaysia. Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 6, 1-18. doi: 10.21837/pm.v6i1.63.

Shamsudin, K., Peter Valentine A. J., Toh Lay S., Mohamed M., and Kasim Z. A. (2013). Safe City Monitoring System: GIS Web-Based Application in Crime Monitoring in Malaysia. The 13th International Confer-ence on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management (CUPUM), 1–21. Retrived From chrome-exten-si-on://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/ 20_Shamsudin.pdf

Shiode, N., Shiode, S., & Inoue, R. (2023). Measuring the Colocation of Crime Hotspots. GeoJournal, 88, 3307–3322. doi: 10.1007/s10708-022-10806-1

Sidhu, A. A. S. (2005). The Rise of Crime in Malaysia-An Academic and Statistical Analysis. Journal of the Kuala Lumpur Royal Malaysia Police College, 1–28.

Tavares, J. P., & Costa, A. C. (2021). Spatial Modeling and Analysis of the Determinants of Property Crime in Portugal. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 10(11), 731. doi: 10.3390/ijgi10110731

Taylor, B. G., Liu, W., Maitra, P., Koper, C. S., Sheridan J., & Johnson, W. (2022). The Effects of Communi-ty-Infused Problem-Oriented Policing in Crime Hot Spots Based on Police Data: A Randomized Con-trolled Trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1-29. doi: 10.1007/s11292-022-09541-x

Taylor, B., Koper, C. S., & Woods, D. J. (2011). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Different Policing Strate-gies at Hot Spots of Violent Crime. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7(2), 149–181. doi: 10.1007/s11292-010-9120-6

The Star Online. (2011). PM announces NKRA to Deal with Rising Cost of Living. Retrived From

Zakaria, Y. S., Ahmad, A., Said, M. Z., Epa, A. E., Ariffin, N. A., Muslim M. A., Akhir, M. F., & Hussin R. (2023). GIS and Oil Spill Tracking Model in Forecasting Potential Oil Spill-Affected Areas Along Ter-engganu and Pahang Coastal Area. Planning Malaysia: Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 21(4), 250–264. doi: 10.21837/pm.v21i28.1330










Research article